May Mount Doom exist? The volcano science behind ‘The Rings of Energy.’

This story comprises main spoilers for Episodes 6 and seven of “The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Energy.”

There are various scenes in “The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Power” that don’t fully make sense. Why did we watch harfoots eat berries for an awkwardly very long time? Why does Galadriel’s hair not look as frizzy as mine after swimming?

However one of the vital thought-provoking scenes happens when a volcano, which we study is Mount Doom, erupts and creates the creepy wastelands of Mordor. The explosion was cinematically thrilling, particularly after a gradual begin to the season, which The Washington Put up’s overview described as beautiful, banal boredom. (Additionally, to level out the oliphaunt within the room: I preferred “The Lord of the Rings” means earlier than Jeff Bezos purchased The Put up and his firm Amazon purchased the rights.)

Volcano specialists say many components of the Mount Doom eruption are pretty practical in comparison with such explosions on Earth. However there are nonetheless a number of particulars that may solely be defined by elf magic, or extra probably Hollywood results.

“We actually regarded for a real-world means that you might do that as an alternative of simply type of saying it was a magic factor,” mentioned Gennifer Hutchison, a author and government producer on the sequence. “When you are able to do that, it’s at all times actually gratifying.”

Listed here are 5 practical — and never so practical — components of the eruption of Mount Doom and subsequent creation of Mordor, in accordance with volcano specialists.

Can water set off a volcanic eruption?

The sequence of occasions begins when a henchman stabs a sword right into a turnkey and unlocks a dam. The dam unleashes a strong stream of water that flows by way of tunnels, which monsters known as orcs have been constructing all through the season (however you don’t know why till now — shock!). The gush of water travels underground and units off explosions all through the village. Huge quantities of water then fall into the cavernous Mount Doom, triggering an apocalyptic eruption. Townspeople flee, houses are destroyed and the land burned into Mordor.

Water may help provoke a real-life volcanic explosion, mentioned Mike Krawczynski, a geochemist at Washington College in St. Louis who research what volcanoes are like earlier than they erupt.


Krawczynski defined that groundwater particularly can come into contact with scorching magma or scorching rock and trigger fast boiling. The change in quantity of liquid to fuel will increase the strain. Stress builds till the gases violently escape and explode. This steam-driven blast known as a phreatic eruption. Such eruptions are arduous to foretell as a result of it’s tough to forecast when groundwater might come into contact with scorching rock or liquid magma.

There was, for instance, a well-known phreatic eruption on Mount Ontake in 2014, which killed dozens of hikers.

“It was like a geyser on steroids,” mentioned Krawczynski of Mount Ontake. “A lot strain constructed up that it fragmented the rock. It threw rocks all over the place. It could actually create landslides.”

Within the present, Krawczynski mentioned that the steam explosions by way of the village mirrored phreatic eruptions on Earth. Slightly than spewing hot-red lava, there have been outbursts of steam and rocks that fell comparatively near the supply.

However he questioned whether or not there was underground magma there that would quickly vaporize the water and permit for the strain to slowly construct, each of which might be crucial for such an eruption.

Equally, the cascading river into Mount Doom would probably not set off the large cinematic eruption.

“Including floor water to a lava lake would create steam, however it can not create the strain crucial for an explosive eruption,” Krawczynski mentioned. (Additionally, he mentioned Mount Doom might by no means bodily exist on Earth as a result of no rocks are robust sufficient to assist such a large cavern, however we digress.)

Jeffrey Karson, a geologist and professor at Syracuse College, mentioned an explosion might happen if there was no exit for the steam, and strain builds.

The steam “may be very explosive and even blow rocks aside — however this might require some entrapment of the water that might be funneled and amplified in a bottleneck, like your thumb on a backyard hose,” mentioned Karson.

Would a volcano really throw rocks and lava to date?

As Mount Doom trembled, a large air-pressure wave shook the village. That’s very practical. Typically, giant volcanic explosions can create shock waves that individuals can really feel and listen to.

“It’s like a sonic growth to the acute, and you’re feeling it,” mentioned Krawczynski. “It’s very sudden. It’s very loud. This occurs.”

A latest real-life instance occurred Jan. 15, 2022, when the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano within the South Pacific erupted. The volcano sent a shock wave around the globe. The eruption was heard about 5,000 miles away in Alaska, whereas climate devices additionally detected a change in strain because the wave handed by.

Different elements of the explosion are usually not as practical, nevertheless. Volcanoes can eject rocks and lava materials within the air known as volcanic bombs, which may gash miniature craters within the earth. However enormous chunks wouldn’t usually journey so far as the present depicts.

Even a giant eruption on Earth wouldn’t have sufficient vitality to throw rocks that far. If it did, Krawczynski mentioned the eruption would have destroyed the entire volcano and left a “massive gap within the floor.”

Not like the present, probably the most harmful impression from a volcanic explosion is often the ash, not the lava. Columns of ash get launched upward after which instantly experience the slopes of the volcano. This ash move, known as a pyroclastic move, strikes very quick — quicker than a human (and perhaps an elf) might run — and for miles.

The pyroclastic flows are in the end what destroyed and buried the Roman metropolis of Pompeii after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D.

May a volcanic explosion create Mordor?

Arguably, a very powerful scientific query of the scene is: May such a volcanic explosion really rework the plush lands of the Southlands into the barren lands the place Sauron ultimately lives? In all probability not.

To acquire Mordor’s barren volcanic lands, you’ll in all probability have to cowl plenty of the realm with lava. However that in all probability wouldn’t be created by a volcano that appears like Mount Doom. Mount Doom seems to be an arc volcano, an explosive ash producer with thick lava that doesn’t move far.

Krawczynski mentioned a Mordor-like panorama would require fluid lava, which is often not explosive and wouldn’t create the ash flows or the steep-sided arc volcano seen within the present. As an alternative, such fluid lava would come from flat, shield-shaped volcanoes, reminiscent of these seen in Hawaii. And you’ll in all probability want a couple of volcano.

“For those who’re going to cowl a big space with lava, you want actually thin-running lava. You’ll be able to’t have actually thick peanut-butter-like lava,” mentioned Krawczynski. “When you could have skinny, runny stuff, you don’t create steep slopes. You create huge planes.”

Krawczynski mentioned if he had been to jot down the geologic origin story of Mordor, it in all probability wouldn’t include a volcano in any respect.

Round 1,800 miles under our toes in Earth’s mantle, scorching, stable rock materials is slowly however repeatedly rising and cooling — like a extra complicated lava lamp. Most scorching plumes cool earlier than reaching the floor, however notably giant ones can hit a tectonic plate, ultimately resulting in numerous magma chambers and produce large-scale volcanism on the floor.

“If I used to be going to create Mordor, I’d have a mantle plume come up,” mentioned Krawczynski. “You would create this huge volcanic space [and] have fissure eruptions. Nobody would contemplate it one volcano since you’d have a lot of totally different vents of lava happening all over the place.”

Krawczynski mentioned such occasions have occurred in Earth’s historical past, referred to as giant igneous province occasions the place “huge swaths of the Earth could be lined in lava, and would create barren landscapes, and have sulfuric-type gases seeping out.” One well-known instance is the Columbia River Basalt Group, largely concentrated in Oregon and Washington. This flood basalt group was created round 6 to 17 million years in the past when particular person lava flows erupted by way of cracks within the crust and poured laterally, masking round 400 miles.

After all, Krawczynski mentioned he’s “entering into plenty of hypothesis” on Mordor creation theories. However in a means it’s the curse of realizing an excessive amount of about geology whereas watching fantasy reveals.

“Once you’re a geologist, you recognize what to anticipate,” he mentioned. “You understand how these issues had been created.

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